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Pendulum Slip Testing

What is a Pendulum Slip Test and how does it work?

In layman’s terms the Pendulum slip test gives a definitive answer whether your floor is fit for purpose under foot when wet or dry. The instrument stands about 2 ft high on a tripod that takes up 1 square meter.

A horizontal arm is released with a rubber shoe on the end. The sprung loaded shoe hits the surface and stays connected to the floor for 127mm carrying a marker that resembles a needle. This needle then travels through the numbered scale and stops at the given level of resistance. It’s this reading that determines the suitability of the surface.


What is the real value of having a pendulum slip test carried out?

This is a question for the finance director in reality but, if you have ever had a slip injury claim come in from one of these ‘lovely’ Personal injury law firms you’ll know it’s not cheap.

What if you could prove the floor was fit for purpose before the slip occurred? What financial value would that save your business? £1500 maybe for a sprained ankle or £30,000 for a broken hip.

If you have independent certified evidence that your floor meets the HSE guidelines for the environment it is intended for you cannot be held liable for a slip injury.


What are the other main benefits of a pendulum slip test?

Floor checks help you maintain lower cost liability insurance

£500 million awarded every year in personal injury claims for slip and fall accident claims and ‘limited’ liability insurance policies will not cover them completely and will increase the costs if you claim

These tests help deter fraudulent slip claims

The highest number of accident compensation & injury claims in the UK are for Slip claims. Accidents are easy to enact but difficult to disprove; a floor testing certificate prominently displayed will deter fraudulent claims and support your case in court in the event of an claim.

A pendulum slip test will save you money by preventing accidents

It is estimated that £1.3 billion is lost every year in claims, loss of profit, production losses, time off, sick pay and NHS costs

Keep you out of prison for failing to meet Health and Safety Laws

Although this may appear to be a drastic statement you are liable to up to 2 years in prison and a maximum £20,000 fine (H & S Offences Act 2008) for breaching Workplace Health Safety and Welfare Regulations which states a slippery floor shall not expose a person to a risk to their Health and Safety. There is a duty of care for managers and employers to ensure slip and fall prevention is highly considered in your HSE risk assessments


Stone Restoration


We make it a point to educate our customers on proper stone care. To keep your stone, tile & grout surfaces looking their best, we strongly recommend to our customers that you use only quality products designated safe for natural stone.

Are you a little confused about whether or not to seal your natural stone? You’ve done your homework and researched the topic on the web only to find that there are opposing opinions on the topic. Most experts recommend sealing all stone while others emphatically state that not all natural stone needs to be sealed.

Let’s make it simple. To be safe, let me say that for the most part, all stone surfaces should be sealed for maximum protection. The worst case when you are dealing with a stone that is not very porous is that the stone will absorb very little sealer to achieve maximized protection. Don’t look the cost of the sealer as a waste of money though. Consider it added peace of mind.


To get a general idea of how absorbent the stone is, place several drops of water on the surface of the stone and time how long it takes for the water to completely disappear. If the water disappears in under one minute, consider the stone very porous.
If it takes up to 3-4 minutes, consider it porous. If it takes more than 3-4 minutes, consider it slightly porous. This simple test will also give a good indication of the quantity of sealer needed to protect the entire area.

Choosing the Correct Sealer

Many factors need to be considered when choosing the correct sealer.

Stone type:

Many, if not most stones today are resined at the factory. Resining adds strength to more fragile stones thus creating a much larger supply of natural stones that can be used. You can learn more about resining by searching the Knowledge Base at www.stoneandtilepros.comAll stone is not created equal. How porous a stone is and how fast it will absorb a liquid is called the absorption coefficient. This coefficient is extremely important when choosing a sealer.Granite generally will have a higher absorption coefficient than a polished marble. Limestone can be extremely absorbent. The higher the absorption coefficient, the more difficult it will be to seal the stone adequately. (See sidebar for Stone Absorbency Test

Stone Finish:

The finish on a stone affects its absorption coefficient. A polished surface will be less absorbent than a honed or flamed finish. The above absorption test will determine how absorbent a stone is.

Stone location:

Where is the stone located? Is the stone on the floor, wall, countertop? Is it in a kitchen, foyer, lobby, bathroom? What are they chances of it being subjected to spills or staining agents? Exposure to water, oil, heavy traffic, pets, etc. all need to be taken into consideration when choosing the proper product for protection. For example, a marble kitchen floor that is used daily will need a sealer that has both oil and water repellant properties. At the other end of that spectrum, dealing with a front foyer may only need a water repellant sealer.When protecting a busy hotel lobby floor, don’t be falsely assured that a wax coating will provide the optimal solution. It may track and scuff too easily, requiring costly upkeep. A quality impregnator and a polishing program may be needed to maintain the shine and protection.

Current Maintenance:

How is the stone maintained? Is it exposed to harsh cleaning chemicals not intended for natural stone? On the other hand, if maintenance is neglected, a stone floor will have ground-in dirt and grit and if it has a high polish it will be worn. In this case, no matter how well it is protected, it will get dirty and dull. For example, a moderately busy hotel lobby floor that gets dust mopped and wet mopped every day may need a good quality impregnator. On the other hand, a stone foyer floor located in a home and not receiving any traffic does not need daily cleaning. An application of a water repellant impregnator may be all that’s necessary.The type of stone, its finish, its location, and how it is maintained all need to be considered when determining how to protect it. Evaluate each of these parameters carefully.How do we protect stone and other porous materials from staining? There are so many sealers on the market today. Which ones are best? Which ones really work?It can be very confusing trying to choose a sealer to protect stone. In the past several years the stone restoration and janitorial industries have bombarded the market with hundreds of products to seal, protect and polish stone.Fortunately, all of these products fall into only two major categories

1: Coatings

2: Impregnators (Penetrating) Sealers


Coatings are sealers that place a sacrificial coating on top of the stone acting as a barrier to prevent water, oil and dirt from entering the pores of the stone.

Coatings can be classified into two general types:

        1. Strippable
        2. Permanent 

Strippable Coatings

Strippable coatings are coatings that are designed to be easily stripped or removed from the surface of the stone. These coatings are made of polymers consisting of acrylics, styrene, polyethylene and others. They are usually water based. Many of the janitorial products are water based polymer type coatings. To identify these coatings look for terms on the label such as “metal cross link,” “high solids,” “high speed,” “acrylic,” “thermoplastic,” etc. When in doubt, ask. There are hundreds of different formulas of strippable floor coatings.

Most of them are designed for resilient tile floors and not for stone. If a coating is to be used, be sure it is specified for stone.

Permanent Coatings

Permanent coatings are coatings that are very difficult to remove. They are made of solvent based polymers such as polyurethane, epoxies, etc. These are not recommended for stone.

Impregnators (Penetrating) Sealers

Impregnators are designed to penetrate below the surface of the stone and deposit solid particles in the pores of the stone or to coat the individual minerals below the surface of the stone. Water, oil and dirt are restricted from entering the stone.

Impregnators can be solvent or water based and usually contain silicone, siloxane, silane, methyl silicate or other similar silicon derivatives. The latest impregnators now contain fluoropolymers2.

Impregnators may also be classified as Oleophobic /Lyophoic (oil repelling) or Hydrophobic (water repelling).

Hydrophobic impregnators are designed to repel only water and water-based chemicals. Fruit drinks, coffee, tea, soda, etc. would be repelled by a hydrophobic impregnator.

1 Infused with resins at the factory to increase strenght and density.

2 Fluorocarbons are also lipophobic and oleophobic.

3 Lipophobicity, also sometimes called lipophobia (from the Greek λιποφοβία from λίπος lipos “fat” and φόβος phobos “fear”), is a chemical property of chemical compounds which means “fat rejection”, literally “fear of fat”. Lipophobic compounds are those not soluble in lipids or other non-polar solvents. From the other point of view, they do not absorb fats.

“Oleophobic” (from the Latin oleum “oil”, Greek ελαιοφοβικό eleophobico from έλαιο eleo “oil” and φόβος phobos “fear”) refers to the physical property of a molecule that is repelled from oil.

The most common lipophobic/oleophobic substance is water.

Oleophobic Impregnators

Oleophobic impregnators are designed to repel water and oil based liquids. Cooking oil, grease, body oils, etc. would be repelled by an oleophobic impregnator.

An oleophobic impregnator will always be hydrophobic, but a hydrophobic impregnator may not be oleophobic. Be sure to read product labels carefully to determine if they it is limited to being only hydrophobic. Some products are listed as oil resistant. Oil resistant and oil repellant are entirely different. Oil resistant will only slow down the absorption of oil into the stone. Oil repellant will prevent oil from entering the stone. Again, read product labels carefully. Be sure you are buying the right product for your particular situation.

NOTE —- Impregnators with Fluoropolymers are both oleophobic and hydrophobic.

IMPORTANT: Impregnators will do nothing to protect acid-sensitive stones from etching. They are designed to penetrate the stone’s surface to create a shield to protect staining agents from penetrating below the surface of the stone. Etching occurs on the surface of the stone.


How do you make the determination between a coating or an impregnator? They both have their advantages and their disadvantages. The following summary should be considered carefully when choosing the proper product:

Coatings – Advantages

Coatings are sealers that place a protective, sacrificial layer on the surface of the stone.

  1. Coatings are generally economical. The initial application is relatively low.
  2. Coatings are generally easy to apply. Unskilled labor can learn to apply them in a short time.
  3. Coatings generally will provide a sacrificial coating on the stone. This layer will take most of the wear, preventing wear on the stone.
  4. Certain coatings will provide added slip-resistance. (Although there are slip resistant treatments available just for natural stone surfaces.)
  5. Coatings can be applied below grade. If a floor is located below ground level, a good coating may prove beneficial for protecting or waterproofing.
  6. Coatings will generally provide various degrees of luster.


  1. Since most coatings are typically softer than the stone itself, they will usually scratch, mar and scuff very easily, showing traffic patterns soon after application. This will require frequent buffing, burnishing or re-application.
  2. Coatings can build up and can cause an unsightly appearance, producing an unnatural, wavy, plastic look to the stone.
  3. Poor quality coatings can turn yellow. This is especially true if the stone is exposed to UV light.
  4. Coatings require frequent stripping and reapplication. The chemicals and abrasives used in the stripping process may cause damage to the stone. Typically, certain stripping pads and stripping brushes can scratch some softer stones.
  5. Some wax strippers can harm certain stones such as agglomerates, eating away at the polyester binders.
  6. Certain coatings may block the breathing capability of the stone. Moisture can become trapped below the surface and may lead to spalling.


  1. Most impregnators will not change the appearance of the stone.
  2. Most impregnators do not require frequent applications. Since the impregnator is below the surface, it will generally last several years before reapplication is necessary.
  3. Most impregnators are not affected by UV light since they are below the surface where UV light cannot penetrate. For this reason they can be used outdoors.
  4. Impregnators are typically hydrophobic, while some are oleophobic.

Impregnators – Disadvantages

  1. Impregnators that are solvent-based produce noxious and flammable vapors during application.
  2. Solvent-based impregnators are harmful to the environment producing high VOCs (volatile organic compounds). For this reason, some are restricted in certain states. Always check the Safety Data Sheet (MSDS/SDS).
  3. Impregnators require a semi-skilled person for application. Proper training is highly recommended.
  4. The initial cost of most impregnators is relatively high.
  5. Impregnators in general cannot be used below grade to resist hydrostatic pressure. Since the stone is still capable of breathing, water can be forced through the stone by pressure.When choosing the proper product for protection, the above guidelines should help. Always talk with the manufacture or distributer, and let them know where you plan to use their product. They can be very helpful if you tell them all the conditions that apply.

Sealing: Do it Yourself or call in a PRO?

SEALING: DIY or Call in a Pro?

Is sealing a job for the homeowner, or should you hire a qualified professional to do it for you? Consider the following pros and cons.

The obvious pro for doing it yourself is you save on labor costs. However, if it is not done correctly it could result in problems.

For example, the surface must be thoroughly and completely cleaned. If not, you take the chance of sealing in dirt and debris. Also, keep in mind that the sealer is intended to fill the pores and coat the exposed minerals in the stone, not to coat the surface. If residual sealer is not completely removed from the surface of stone, it may cause problems, including a haze on the stone’s surface that may develop as the sealer dries. Once it has dried completely, sealer can be very difficult to remove, often requiring professional assistance.

Different sealers perform differently in different environments and on different stones. Hiring a pro to do the job may end up saving you in the end. A pro will know which is the best sealer for the job and will use equipment and techniques that allow them to get the job done efficiently.





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